Radioactive and relative dating

(These are the moving particles which constitute the radioactivity measured by Geiger counters and the like.) The end result is stable atoms, but of a numbers of protons and electrons.This process of changing the isotope of one element (designated as the parent) into the isotope of another element (referred to as the daughter) is called radioactive decay.Rather, it is a transmutation process of changing one element into another.Geologists regularly use five parent isotopes as the basis for the radioactive methods to date rocks: uranium-238, uranium-235, potassium-40, rubidium-87, and samarium-147.The nucleus contains protons (tiny particles each with a single positive electric charge) and neutrons (particles without any electric charge).Orbiting around the nucleus are electrons (tiny particles each with a single electric charge).

In some cases, the isotopes eject particles, primarily neutrons and protons.

It is the number of neutrons in their nuclei that varies, but too many neutrons make the nuclei unstable, as in carbon-14.

Some isotopes of some elements are radioactive; that is, they are unstable because their nuclei are too large.

For decades, the biologists have boldly proclaimed that, whereas we cannot observe today one type of creature evolving into a totally different type of creature, “Time is the hero of the plot. No one even bothers to ask what assumptions drive the conclusions.

So let’s take a closer look at these methods and see how reliable they really are.

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The daughter atoms are not lesser in quality than the parent atoms from which they were produced.

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